In retinoblastoma, cancerous cells develop in the retina of the eye. It is a rare type of tumor which mainly develops in childhood mainly under the age of five.

Two types of Retinoblastoma:-

Hereditary retinoblastoma:- it is a type of retinoblastoma which is caused by genetic mutation that is present in the germ line cells (sperm or egg). Hereditary retinoblastoma mainly affects both eyes.

Non- hereditary retinoblastoma:- it develops after conception and it is not inherited from the parents. It mainly affects only one eye.

CAUSES:- the main cause of retinoblastoma is genetic mutation of cells. These mutations can either be inherited (from a parent) or can occur spontaneously during embryonic development.

It primarily affects the children below the age of 5.

It affects both males and females.



The main symptoms of retinoblastoma are white pupils. Appearance of white or pale colored pupils.

  1. Crossed or maligned eyes (strabismus).
  2. Inflammation or redness of eye.
  3. Loss of vision.
  4. Inability to focus.
  5. Children may squint or close one eye more frequently than the other.
  6. Discomfort, sensitive to light.
  7. Change in eye color.
  8. Sport or discoloration of the eye.


  1. Eye examination:- through ophthalmoscope to examine the back of eye (retina) and recognize any tumor or growth.
  2. Ultrasound.
  3. MRI.
  4. CT SCAN.
  5. Biopsy.
  6. Physical examination.



  1. Cataract with motor disturbance.
  2. Inflammation of eyelids.
  3. Ulceration.
  4. Vision impaired, as if a film was before the eyes.
  5. Paralysis of ocular muscles after exposure to cold.
  6. Sparks and dark spots before the eyes.


  1. Thrombosis of retinal vessels and degenerative changes in retinal cells.
  2. Retinal problems with perception of light and hallucination vision.
  3. Redness and burning.
  4. Atrophy of optic nerve.
  5. Letters appear red.
  6. Sensation as if everything was covered with a mist.
  7.  Black points seem to float before the eyes.


  1. Catarrhal conditions.
  2. The eyes water all the time.
  3. Acrid lachrymation, bland coryza.
  4. Discharge thick and excoriating.
  5. Pressure in the eyes.
  6. Sticky matter from coryza, must wink to remove it.

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