Acne is the form of a pimple, it can be papules, pustules, cystic and nodular, white head or blackheads, etc.
It occurs when hair follicles blocked by sebum/oil, dead skin cells, bacterias cause inflammation of the skin and produce acne.
The most affected areas are the face, back and shoulder etc.
- Propionibacterium is the most prominent cause of acne vulgaris.
- During puberty: a hormone androgen level increases which cause more secretion of sebum/ oil leads to acne ( physiological hormonal changes).
- Hormonal imbalance due to certain conditions in females like PCOS/PCOD, pregnancy, menstrual cycle and falling oestrogen level may cause acne in females. Stress can cause hormonal and metabolic changes which may cause acne.
- Dietary factors: highly fatty food /oily food can cause acne.
- Over friction or exfoliation causes acne due to irritation of the skin.
- Dirty pillow or bed covers can cause bacterial infection.
Classification and symptoms :
- Mild: whiteheads or blackhead on the face only.
- Moderate: papules and pustules over face and chest come under moderate condition.
- Severe: nodular and cystic acne come under severe form.
Papules: painful reddish pimples called papules.
Pustules: pimples that are reddish painful and with puss at the tip called pustules.
Comedones: whiteheads, blackheads that are not painful.
Nodules: large, painful hard bumpy pimple under the skin.
Cystic: puss-filled and painful lumps under the skin.
Scars and excessive pigmentation of the skin can result from acne.
Risk factors :
- stress can cause hormonal imbalance.
- In teenagers, it mostly occurs due to hormonal changes.
- Over-friction of the skin can cause acne.
- Over exfoliation may cause acne. A dirty pillow and bed sheet can cause skin infection.
- Diagnosis can be made based on clinical symptoms.
- CBC for anaemic condition.
- Hormonal investigations.
- Ultrasonography for ruling out cystic ovaries.
- Wash your face with normal water twice a day, once in the morning and at night before sleeping.
- Do not use perfume based products over the skin which may irritate the skin.
- Exfoliation of the skin must be done once a week like scrubbing which helps in removing dead skin from the face that prevents from causing acne. But do not over-exfoliation the skin every day because over-friction can cause injury to the skin and cause acne.
- Apply sunscreen every day before 30 minutes to sun exposure and reapply it after 3-4 hours. Sunscreen should be broad-spectrum and oil-free.
- Oil-free makeup and products should be used.
- Dietary factors: drink plenty of water.
Avoid sugar or dairy products in severe acne.
Take a healthy nutritional diet and vitamin-c rich fruits.
- Berberis aquifolium
- Hepar sulph
- Radio bromatum
- Juglans R.