Allergy is a condition in which the immune system of the body overreacts in some people to certain things (substances) that are not harmful usually. The substances that cause an allergic reaction are called an allergen. It can be hay fever, food allergies, atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma, allergic rhinitis. Different individuals are sensitive to different allergens and substances: For eg.: If one person is having sneezing problems due to inhaling dust particles others may get the same problems with another allergen. Two individuals can develop different symptoms with the same allergen.
1. Dust particles.
2. Pollen grains in a particular season especially in April- May.
3. Variety of food like milk, capsicum, eggs, wheat, peanuts, fish, etc.
4. In many individuals, insect bites or bee sting can cause allergic reactions.
5. Genetic factors: people with a family history of any kind of allergy are more prone to develop an allergy.
6. Some people may get affected by medications like penicillin or antibiotics.
Different allergens can affect different parts of the body. It can affect airways,(nose or throat) sinuses, skin digestive system, etc.
â— Allergic rhinitis: allergic rhinitis also known as hay fever that affects the nose.
â— It is of two types:
â–Seasonal: in seasonal allergic rhinitis, symptoms
mainly occur in summer and spring or a particular season.
â–Perennial: in perennial allergic rhinitis this symptom occurs every time an individual gets exposed to a certain allergen.
2. Watery discharge from the nose can be acrid and offensive.
3. Blocked nostrils.
4. Redness of conjunctiva.
â— Food allergy: food allergy may cause different types of symptoms:
1. Swelling of lips, tongue, face, or throat.
2. Pain in throat and swelling ( tonsillitis).
3. Skin rashes or urticaria ( bumps over skin that can suddenly appear over the full body with excessive itching and burning sensation.
4. Diarrhea and vomiting.
â— Insects bites/stings: insect bites create a wound and they inject formic acid inside the skin that causes inflammation, pain, itching, and burning sensation.
â— That area that is wounded by insect bites gets swollen and painful.
â— Shortness of breath may occur.
â— Skin eruptions all over the body.
â— body aches.
â— Drug allergy: it is a reaction to the medicines that causes skin eruptions over whole body parts.
â— Excessive itching and pain.
â— Diarrhoea and vomiting.
Urticaria (hives). : urticaria is a skin condition where bumps appear all over the body with excessive itching. It occurs immediately after exposure to a certain allergen that causes allergic reactions.
â— Red raised eruptions occur suddenly after exposure to certain things that may cause allergic reactions.
â— It can be painful.
Atopic dermatitis: atopic dermatitis mostly happens in children below the age of 18 but it can affect any person with different age groups. It is the most common type of eczema. It is a long-lasting inflammation of the skin that makes the skin red, swollen, dry and cracked.
â— Small papular eruptions with watery discharge.
â— Itching and burning sensation in an affected area.
â— Dry scaly skin of an affected part.
Conjunctivitis: Conjunctivitis is the inflammation and infection of the layers that cover the eyeballs.
â— Redness of the eyes with watery discharge.
Asthma: Asthma is a respiratory condition where overreaction of an immune system causes inflammation and narrowing of airways.
â— Difficulty in breathing.
â— Wheezing sound from the chest while breathing.
â— Coughing and tightness with chest pain.
1. Skin prick test.
2. Patch test.
3. IgE level.
4. Absolute eosinophil count.
Prevention and management:
â— Avoid food and things that cause allergic reactions.
â— Immunotherapy to boost the immune system.
â— Do not get direct sun exposure that may cause allergy.
â— Wear a mask before going outside. Homeopathy management :
â— Allium cepa: it can be given in allergic rhinitis or allergic conjunctivitis. Profuse watery discharge that is acrid and corrosive from the nose and eyes. Burning sensation in the upper lips and cheeks. sneezing constantly.
â— Euphresia Officinalis : it has the main action on the eyes. Well marked in conjunctivitis. profuse watery discharge from the eyes that is acrid and causes a burning sensation.
â— Wythia : well-marked where itching occurs in the throat and palate or in the ear. Itching discomfort of the throat. soreness of the throat.
â— Sabadilla : it can be given for an itchy nose with sneezing. lachrymation. sneezing gets worse by exposure to cold wind or from pollen.