Leukemia is a type of cancer that affects the bone marrow and blood forming cells and lymphatic system. Leukemia is found In both children and adults. In this uncontrolled production of abnormal white blood cells occurs.

Different types of leukemia:-

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL):– it mainly found in children and starts in early forms of lymphocytes (WBC). 

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML):- it is found in both children and adults. It mainly affects the myeloid cells that give rise to RBCs, WBCs and platelets.

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL):- it mainly affects the adults. It mainly affects the lymphocytes. These cells accumulate of mature but abnormal lymphocytes in the blood, lymph nodes and bone marrow.

Chronic myeloid leukemia:– it is similar to AML. But progress is slower than acute leukemia. In this overproduction of WBCs (myeloid cells) in the bone marrow.

CAUSES: – the exact cause of leukemia is unknown. But many factors on which leukemia can develop are as follows: – 

  • Some genetic factors can increase the risk of leukemia.
  • Pervious history of cancer treatment is also responsible for leukemia.
  • Some genetic disorders like Down syndrome, bloom syndrome have higher risk of developing leukemia.
  • Smoking.

Common symptoms of leukemia are:-

  1. Fever frequently.
  2. Weight loss.
  3. Hepatomegaly and splenomegaly.
  4. Weakness and fatigue.
  5. Lymph nodes swollen.
  6. Severe infections or frequent infections.
  7. Epistaxis again and again.
  8. Bleeding easily.
  9. Excessive sweating, especially at night.
  10. Bone pain or joint pain.
  11. Petechiae.
  12. Loss of appetite.
  13. Abdominal discomfort.
  14. Pale skin.
  15. Shortness of breath.
  16. Abdominal pain or discomfort.


CBC:- Increase white blood cell or abnormal proliferation of WBCs.

Decrease in RBCs causing anemia.

Thrombocytopenia. Platelet decrease.

Bone marrow and biopsy aspiration.

Flow cytometry: – to analyze the surface markers on leukemia cells.


Lumbar puncture: – to detect the leukemia cells in CSF.



  1. The main action of T.N.T.  on the RBCs.
  2. Leukemia.
  3. Anemia and jaundice.
  4. Epistaxis.
  5. Tendency to hemorrhages under skin.
  6. Fatigue.
  7. Breathlessness, dizziness, headache.


  1. Decrease of RBCs and increase of WBCs.
  2. Leukemia.
  3. Hallucinations, epileptiform attacks.
  4. Dizziness.
  5. Right sided headache.

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