The ankle joint is made up of three bones (tibia and fibula of the leg and the talus bone of the foot ) and ligaments (lateral and medial ligaments) or with tendons.
Injury to the ligaments bones and tendons can cause discomfort or pain in the ankle.
Ankle pain can be caused due to many reasons like:
1. Gout: when uric acid crystals get deposited in the joint especially in the feet and small joints can cause pain and swell in the ankle and feet.
2. Vitamin- D deficiency can cause low absorption of calcium which makes bones weak and fragile and can lead to osteoporosis and fractures.
3. Ankle sprain: twisting of the foot can cause injury to ligaments and can be the reason for the ankle pain (ligaments are strong thick tissues that connect one bone to another bone and restrict their movements)
4. Tendonitis: Achilles tendonitis is thick fibrous tissue that connects the calf muscle to the ankle joint. Overuse of feet can cause inflammation and irritation of the tendon can cause back.
5. Fracture: Fracture of the talus, tibia, or fibula bone can cause pain in the ankle.
6. Injury/trauma: mechanical injury to the deeper tissue and twisting of leg and foot may result in tearing of ligaments that can cause ankle pain.
7. Osteoarthritis : Inflammation of joints due to loss of cushion between two bones that causes over friction of joints can be the reason for ankle pain.
8. Infection: infections like cellulitis which is the inflammation of the epidermal layer due to bacterias causes severe pain and tenderness in the legs and feet.
9. Chronic kidney disease can cause fluid retention to the feet and legs which may result in pain and swelling of the ankles.
10. Tarsal tunnel syndrome: in tarsal tunnel syndrome posterior tibial artery gets compressed and causes pain and tingling sensation.
11. Rheumatoid arthritis :it is an autoimmune disease that causes inflammation of the joints .
Pain and swelling of the ankle.
Difficulty in walking and standing.
Tingling shooting pain.
Tenderness and sore feeling.
Nodular deposition in hyperuricemia.
Bruises after injury.
Redness burning pain .
Crackling sound of joints.
Renal function test: to rule out the gout and kidney
X-ray after sprain and injury to confirm if there is fracture or not or degenerative
RA factor to rule out Rheumatoid Arthritis.
Blood test : to see leucocytes count if any infection persists.
Take proper rest.
Give warm compression to the feet.
Wear comfortable soft cushion shoes.
Do not wear flat hard soles and heels.
Sleep with elevated feet.
Do not constantly keep your legs in a hanging position.
Take a healthy proper nutritional diet rich in calcium and
Avoid high protein intake in kidney diseases.
Take vitamin-D supplements for two consecutive months.
Fluid intake should not be more than 1 and half litre in a person with kidney diseases.
1. Rhus tox: rhus tox can be given in where over straining of muscles and tendons causes tearing of tendons and ligaments with stiffness of joints. Shooting ,stitching type of pain in the joints. It works well on achilles tendonitis.
2. Benzoic acid : it has marked action on hyperuricemia. Tearing and stitching type of pain especially in the achilles tendon. Nodular deposition, crackling sound of joints with swelling.
3. Symphytum: symphytum works well in fracture of bone. Pricking and soreness of affected sites. It also has good results in injury to the tendons. Symphytum speeds up the bone healing and helps in increased production of callus.
4. Arnica : arnica has very good results in spraining of ankle or injury caused by blunt objects or from falling down. There is swelling of the ankle with soreness and marked tenderness. Bruises on the affected part.