Dyspareunia is a medical term for painful sexual intercourse.

Recurrent pain in the genital and in the pelvis before, during, and after sexual intercourse is called dyspareunia.

Dyspareunia can occur in both males and females but it more commonly affects females as compared to males.

Dyspareunia can occur due to injury and inadequate lubrication during intercourse.

Causes of Dyspareunia:

Dyspareunia can be a sign of other problems.

In females:

Several conditions can cause dyspareunia in females:

• Vaginal dryness due to inadequate secretion of mucus from the bulbourethral gland that causes dryness and painful intercourse.

Some medications like antidepressants, antihistamines, and contraceptive pills can cause dryness of the vagina.

• cystitis: infection and inflammation of the bladder wall can cause painful intercourse.

• Fibroids

• Endometriosis

• Ovarian cysts

• Pelvic inflammatory disease

• Uterine prolapse

• Vaginismus

• Urinary tract infection

• Vulvar vestibulitis: inflammation of the opening of the vagina due to infection and injury.

• Sexually transmitted diseases like chlamydia infection, HIV, gonorrhea, etc.

• Atrophic vaginitis: this condition mostly occurs, postmenopausal women, where vaginal layers get thinner and drier.

• Cancer of cervix

• Polyp in the cervix.

• Stress

• Anxiety

• History of sexual abuse

• Intrauterine devices can cause dyspareunia.

Causes of dyspareunia in males:

• Bacterial or viral infection can cause dyspareunia.

• Sexually transmitted infections like chlamydia, gonorrhea, etC.

• Male candidiasis

• Phimosis

• Chronic prostatitis

• Testicular cancer

• Peyronie’s disease: it mainly occurs in men over the age of 55 with gradual changes in the structure of the penis.

• Penile fracture

• Injury or trauma

• Erectile dysfunction


• Pain in the pelvic region and lower abdomen before, during, and after intercourse that can extend to the back and thighs.

• Some women may experience sharp stingy pain in the vagina.

• Feeling of tightening of pelvic floor muscle.

• Low libido

• Some people may experience bleeding after intercourse.


In females:

• Pelvic examination with the help of speculum in females: to see the inflammation, swelling, or any abnormal growth in the vagina and cervix.

• Pap smear: to diagnose cervical cancer of infection.

• Urine test to diagnose UTI.

• Swab test to see which organism had caused infections

• Ultrasonography of the lower abdomen to rule out the conditions like endometriosis, ovarian cysts, or uterine fibroids

• Pelvic sonography to look inside the pelvis.

In males:

• Detailed medical history

• Inspection of the male genital area to see the infection or inflammation.

• Swab test to rule out the possibility of infections.


• Take proper treatment for infection or It can cause severe problems and can spread to the partner

• Maintain hygiene

• Women should do kegel exercise as it strengthens the pelvic floor muscle

Dyspareunia Homeopathy management:

• Sepia: Sepia is well indicated for dyspareunia where bleeding can occur after intercourse. Dryness of the vagina is marked in this remedy. Severe pain during and after intercourse. It can be given where dyspareunia occurs due to pelvic inflammatory disease, ovarian cysts, or fibroids. Vaginal discharge may irritate the vagina.

Decrease libido is marked in sepia.

• Kreosotum: this is well-indicated medicine for painful intercourse where bleeding occurs the next day after intercourse. Leucorrhoea is very offensive and acrid that causes pain, burning, and itching in the vagina. Pain and soreness of the genital area.

• Platinum metallicum: it is well indicated for dyspareunia with vaginismus with excessive sensitiveness of the sexual organs. The genitals are painful and sensitive with itching, tickling, and crawling sensation.

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